The Open Group is a global consortium that enables the achievement of business objectives through IT standards. With more than 500 member organizations, The Open Group has a diverse membership that spans all sectors of the IT community – customers, systems and solutions suppliers, tool vendors, integrators, and consultants, as well as academics and researchers – to:
• Capture, understand, and address current and emerging requirements, and establish policies and share best practices
• Facilitate interoperability, develop consensus, and evolve and integrate specifications and open source technologies
• Offer a comprehensive set of services to enhance the operational efficiency of consortia
• Operate the industry’s premier certification service
Further information on The Open Group is available at www.opengroup.org.
The Open Group publishes a wide range of technical documentation, most of which is focused on development of Open Group Standards and Guides, but which also includes white papers, technical studies, certification and testing documentation, and business titles. Full details and a catalog are available at www.opengroup.org/bookstore.
Readers should note that updates – in the form of Corrigenda – may apply to any publication. This information is published at www.opengroup.org/corrigenda.
This edition of the standard includes a number of corrections, clarifications, and improvements to the previous edition, as well as several additions.
The intended audience of this standard is threefold:
• All those working to shape and implement complex organization change. Typical job titles include Enterprise Architecture practitioners, business architects, IT architects, application architects, data architects, information architects, process architects, infrastructure architects, software architects, systems architects, solutions architects, product/service managers, senior and operational management, project leaders, and anyone working within the reference framework defined by an Enterprise Architecture.
• Those who intend to implement the ArchiMate language in a software tool. They will find a complete and detailed description of the language in this document.
• The academic community, on which we rely for amending and improving the language based on state-of-the-art research in the architecture field.
The structure of this standard is as follows:
• Chapter 1, Introduction, provides the introduction to this standard, including the objectives, a brief overview, conformance requirements, and terminology.
• Chapter 2, Definitions, defines the general terms used in this standard.
• Chapter 3, Language Structure, describes the structure of the ArchiMate modeling language, including the top-level structure, layering, the ArchiMate Core Framework, and the full Framework.
• Chapter 4, Generic Metamodel, describes the structure and elements of the ArchiMate generic metamodel.
• Chapter 5, Relationships, describes the relationships in the language.
• Chapter 6, Motivation Elements, describes the concepts for expressing the motivation for an architecture, together with examples.
• Chapter 7, Strategy Elements, provides elements for modeling the enterprise at a strategic level, together with examples.
• Chapter 8, Business Layer, covers the definition and usage of the Business Layer elements, together with examples.
• Chapter 9, Application Layer, covers the definition and usage of the Application Layer elements, together with examples.
• Chapter 10, Technology Layer, covers the definition and usage of the Technology Layer elements, together with examples.
• Chapter 11, Physical Elements, describes the language elements for modeling the physical world, together with examples.
• Chapter 12, Cross-Layer Dependencies, covers the relationships between different layers of the language.
• Chapter 13, Implementation and Migration Elements, describes the language elements for expressing the implementation and migration aspects of an architecture (e.g., projects, programs, plateaus, and gaps).
• Chapter 14, Stakeholders, Viewpoints, and Views, describes the ArchiMate viewpoint mechanism.
• Chapter 15, Language Customization Mechanisms, describes how to customize the ArchiMate language for specialized or domain-specific purposes.
• Appendix A, Summary of Language Notation, is an informative appendix.
• Appendix B, Relationship Tables, is a normative appendix detailing the required relationships between elements of the language.
• Appendix C, Example Viewpoints (Informative), presents a set of architecture viewpoints, developed in ArchiMate notation based on practical experience. All viewpoints are described in detail. The appendix specifies the elements, relationships, usage guidelines, goals, and target groups for each viewpoint.
• Appendix D, Relationship to Other Standards (Informative), describes the relationships of the ArchiMate language to other standards, including the TOGAF framework, BPMN, UML, and BMM.
• Appendix E, Changes from ArchiMate 2.1 to ArchiMate 3.0 (Informative), is an informative appendix outlining the changes in the standard between Version 2.1 and Version 3.0.
ArchiMate®, DirecNet®, Making Standards Work®, OpenPegasus®, The Open Group®, TOGAF®, UNIX®, UNIXWARE®, X/Open®, and the Open Brand X® logo are registered trademarks and Boundaryless Information Flow™, Build with Integrity Buy with Confidence™, Dependability Through Assuredness™, FACE™, the FACE™ logo, IT4IT™, the IT4IT™ logo, O-DEF™, Open FAIR™, Open Platform 3.0™, Open Trusted Technology Provider™, Platform 3.0™, the Open O™ logo, and The Open Group Certification logo (Open O and check™) are trademarks of The Open Group.
Java® is a registered trademark of Oracle and/or its affiliates.
OMG®, UML®, and Unified Modeling Language® are registered trademarks and BPMN™ and Business Process Modeling Notation™ are trademarks of the Object Management Group.
All other brands, company, and product names are used for identification purposes only and may be trademarks that are the sole property of their respective owners.
The Open Group gratefully acknowledges the contribution of the following people in the development of this and earlier versions of this standard:
• Iver Band, EA Principals & Cambia Health Solutions
• Thorbjørn Ellefsen, Capgemini
• William Estrem, Metaplexity Associates
• Maria-Eugenia Iacob, University of Twente
• Henk Jonkers, BiZZdesign
• Marc M. Lankhorst, BiZZdesign
• Dag Nilsen, Biner
• Erik (H.A.) Proper, Luxembourg Institute for Science and Technology & Radboud University Nijmegen
• Dick A.C. Quartel, BiZZdesign
• Serge Thorn, Metaplexity Fellow
The Open Group and ArchiMate project team would like to thank in particular the following individuals for their support and review of this and earlier versions of this standard:
• Adina Aldea
• Mary Beijleveld
• Alexander Bielowski
• Remco de Boer
• Adrian Campbell
• John Coleshaw
• Jörgen Dahlberg
• Garry Doherty
• Ingvar Elmér
• Wilco Engelsman
• Roland Ettema
• Henry M. Franken
• Mats Gejnevall
• Sonia González
• Kirk Hansen
• Jos van Hillegersberg
• Andrew Josey
• Ryan Kennedy
• Louw Labuschagne
• Antoine Lonjon
• Veer Muchandi
• Michelle Nieuwoudt
• Erwin Oord
• Carlo Poli
• G. Edward Roberts
• Jean-Baptiste Sarrodie
• Daniel Simon
• Gerben Wierda
• Egon Willemsz
The first version of this Open Group standard was largely produced by the ArchiMate project. The Open Group gratefully acknowledges the contribution of the many people – former members of the project team – who have contributed to it.
The ArchiMate project comprised the following organizations:
• ABN AMRO
• Centrum voor Wiskunde en Informatica
• Dutch Tax and Customs Administration
• Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science
• Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen
• Stichting Pensioenfonds ABP
(Please note that the links below are good at the time of writing but cannot be guaranteed for the future.)
 Enterprise Architecture at Work: Modeling, Communication, and Analysis, Third Edition, M.M. Lankhorst et al., Springer, 2013.
 The Anatomy of the ArchiMate® Language, M.M. Lankhorst, H.A. Proper, H. Jonkers, International Journal of Information Systems Modeling and Design (IJISMD), 1(1):1-32, January-March 2010.
 Extending Enterprise Architecture Modeling with Business Goals and Requirements, W. Engelsman, D.A.C. Quartel, H. Jonkers, M.J. van Sinderen, Enterprise Information Systems, 5(1):9-36, 2011.
 Extending and Formalizing the Framework for Information Systems Architecture, J.F. Sowa, J.A. Zachman, IBM Systems Journal, Volume 31, No. 3, pp.590-616, 1992.
 TOGAF® Framework and ArchiMate® Modeling Language Harmonization: A Practitioner’s Guide to Using the TOGAF® Framework and the ArchiMate® Language, White Paper (W14C), December 2014, published by The Open Group; refer to: www.opengroup.org/bookstore/catalog/w14c.htm.
 Unified Modeling Language®: Superstructure, Version 2.0 (formal/05-07-04), Object Management Group, August 2005.
 Unified Modeling Language®: Infrastructure, Version 2.4.1 (formal/201-08-05), Object Management Group, August 2011.
 A Business Process Design Language, H. Eertink, W. Janssen, P. Oude Luttighuis, W. Teeuw, C. Vissers, in Proceedings of the First World Congress on Formal Methods, Toulouse, France, September 1999.
 Enterprise Business Architecture: The Formal Link between Strategy and Results, R. Whittle, C.B. Myrick, CRC Press, 2004.
 Composition of Relations in Enterprise Architecture, R. van Buuren, H. Jonkers, M.E. Iacob, P. Strating, in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Graph Transformation, pp.39-53, Edited by H. Ehrig et al., Rome, Italy, 2004.
 Business Process Modeling Notation™ (BPMN™), Version 2.0 (formal/2011-01-03), Object Management Group, 2011.
 Performance and Cost Analysis of Service-Oriented Enterprise Architectures, H. Jonkers, M.E. Iacob, in Global Implications of Modern Enterprise Information Systems: Technologies and Applications, Edited by A. Gunasekaran, IGI Global, 2009.
 ISO/IEC 42010:2011, Systems and Software Engineering – Recommended Practice for Architectural Description of Software-Intensive Systems, Edition 1.
 Business Motivation Model (BMM), Version 1.1 (formal/2010-05-01), Object Management Group, 2010.