log, logf, logl - natural logarithm function
double log(double x);
float logf(float x);
long double logl(long double x);
[CX] The functionality described on this reference page is aligned with the ISO C standard. Any conflict between the requirements described here and the ISO C standard is unintentional. This volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 defers to the ISO C standard.
These functions shall compute the natural logarithm of their argument x, loge(x).
An application wishing to check for error situations should set errno to zero and call feclearexcept(FE_ALL_EXCEPT) before calling these functions. On return, if errno is non-zero or fetestexcept(FE_INVALID | FE_DIVBYZERO | FE_OVERFLOW | FE_UNDERFLOW) is non-zero, an error has occurred.
Upon successful completion, these functions shall return the natural logarithm of x.
If x is ±0, a pole error shall occur and log(), logf(), and logl() shall return -HUGE_VAL, -HUGE_VALF, and -HUGE_VALL, respectively.
For finite values of x that are less than 0, [MX] or if x is -Inf, a domain error shall occur, and [MX] either a NaN (if supported), or an implementation-defined value shall be returned.
[MX] If x is NaN, a NaN shall be returned.
If x is 1, +0 shall be returned.
If x is +Inf, x shall be returned.
These functions shall fail if:
- Domain Error
- The finite value of x is negative, [MX] or x is -Inf.
If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is non-zero, then errno shall be set to [EDOM]. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is non-zero, then the invalid floating-point exception shall be raised.
- Pole Error
- The value of x is zero.
If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is non-zero, then errno shall be set to [ERANGE]. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is non-zero, then the divide-by-zero floating-point exception shall be raised.
On error, the expressions (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) and (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) are independent of each other, but at least one of them must be non-zero.
exp(), feclearexcept(), fetestexcept(), isnan(), log10(), log1p(), the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 4.18, Treatment of Error Conditions for Mathematical Functions, <math.h>
First released in Issue 1. Derived from Issue 1 of the SVID.
The DESCRIPTION is updated to indicate how an application should check for an error. This text was previously published in the APPLICATION USAGE section.
The DESCRIPTION is updated to avoid use of the term "must" for application requirements.
The logf() and logl() functions are added for alignment with the ISO/IEC 9899:1999 standard.
The DESCRIPTION, RETURN VALUE, ERRORS, and APPLICATION USAGE sections are revised to align with the ISO/IEC 9899:1999 standard.
IEC 60559:1989 standard floating-point extensions over the ISO/IEC 9899:1999 standard are marked.