ArchiMate® 3.1 Specification
Copyright © 2012-2019 The Open Group

Welcome to the ArchiMate® 3.1 Specification, a Standard of The Open Group

Frontmatter

1          Introduction. 1

1.1      Objective. 1

1.2      Overview.. 1

1.3      Conformance. 1

1.4      Normative References. 2

1.5      Terminology. 2

1.6      Future Directions. 2

2          Definitions. 3

2.1      ArchiMate Core Framework. 3

2.2      ArchiMate Core Language. 3

2.3      Architecture View.. 3

2.4      Architecture Viewpoint 3

2.5      Aspect 3

2.6      Attribute. 4

2.7      Composite Element 4

2.8      Concept 4

2.9      Conformance. 4

2.10   Conforming Implementation. 4

2.11   Core Element 4

2.12   Element 4

2.13   Layer 4

2.14   Model 4

2.15   Relationship. 5

3          Language Structure. 6

3.1      Language Design Considerations. 6

3.2      Top-Level Language Structure. 6

3.3      Layering of the ArchiMate Language. 7

3.4      The ArchiMate Core Framework. 8

3.5      The ArchiMate Full Framework. 9

3.6      Abstraction in the ArchiMate Language. 10

3.7      Concepts and their Notation. 11

3.8      Use of Nesting. 11

3.9      Use of Colors and Notational Cues. 11

4          Generic Metamodel 13

4.1      Behavior and Structure Elements. 13

4.1.1        Active Structure Elements. 14

4.1.2        Behavior Elements. 15

4.1.3        Passive Structure Elements. 16

4.2      Specializations of Structure and Behavior Elements. 16

4.3      Summary of Structure and Behavior Elements. 18

4.4      Motivation Elements. 19

4.5      Composite Elements. 19

4.5.1        Grouping. 20

4.5.2        Location. 21

5          Relationships. 22

5.1      Structural Relationships. 23

5.1.1        Composition Relationship. 23

5.1.2        Aggregation Relationship. 24

5.1.3        Assignment Relationship. 25

5.1.4        Realization Relationship. 26

5.1.5        Semantics of Structural Relationships. 27

5.2      Dependency Relationships. 28

5.2.1        Serving Relationship. 28

5.2.2        Access Relationship. 29

5.2.3        Influence Relationship. 30

5.2.4        Association Relationship. 31

5.2.5        Semantics of Dependency Relationships. 32

5.3      Dynamic Relationships. 33

5.3.1        Triggering Relationship. 33

5.3.2        Flow Relationship. 33

5.3.3        Semantics of Dynamic Relationships. 34

5.4      Other Relationships. 34

5.4.1        Specialization Relationship. 34

5.4.2        Semantics of Other Relationships. 35

5.5      Relationship Connectors. 35

5.5.1        Junction. 35

5.6      Summary of Relationships. 37

5.7      Derivation of Relationships. 38

6          Motivation Elements. 40

6.1      Motivation Elements Metamodel 40

6.2      Stakeholder, Driver, and Assessment 41

6.2.1        Stakeholder 41

6.2.2        Driver 41

6.2.3        Assessment 42

6.2.4        Example. 42

6.3      Goal, Outcome, Principle, Requirement, and Constraint 43

6.3.1        Goal 43

6.3.2        Outcome. 44

6.3.3        Principle. 44

6.3.4        Requirement 45

6.3.5        Constraint 45

6.3.6        Example. 46

6.4      Meaning and Value. 47

6.4.1        Meaning. 47

6.4.2        Value. 47

6.4.3        Example. 48

6.5      Summary of Motivation Elements. 49

6.6      Relationships with Core Elements. 50

7          Strategy Elements. 51

7.1      Strategy Elements Metamodel 51

7.2      Structure Elements. 51

7.2.1        Resource. 51

7.3      Behavior Elements. 52

7.3.1        Capability. 52

7.3.2        Value Stream.. 53

7.3.3        Course of Action. 54

7.4      Example. 54

7.5      Summary of Strategy Elements. 56

7.6      Relationships with Motivation and Core Elements. 57

8          Business Layer 58

8.1      Business Layer Metamodel 58

8.2      Active Structure Elements. 58

8.2.1        Business Actor 59

8.2.2        Business Role. 60

8.2.3        Business Collaboration. 60

8.2.4        Business Interface. 61

8.2.5        Example. 61

8.3      Behavior Elements. 62

8.3.1        Business Process. 63

8.3.2        Business Function. 64

8.3.3        Business Interaction. 65

8.3.4        Business Event 65

8.3.5        Business Service. 66

8.3.6        Example. 66

8.4      Passive Structure Elements. 67

8.4.1        Business Object 67

8.4.2        Contract 68

8.4.3        Representation. 68

8.4.4        Example. 69

8.5      Composite Elements. 69

8.5.1        Product 70

8.5.2        Example. 71

8.6      Summary of Business Layer Elements. 71

9          Application Layer 73

9.1      Application Layer Metamodel 73

9.2      Active Structure Elements. 73

9.2.1        Application Component 74

9.2.2        Application Collaboration. 75

9.2.3        Application Interface. 75

9.2.4        Example. 76

9.3      Behavior Elements. 76

9.3.1        Application Function. 77

9.3.2        Application Interaction. 77

9.3.3        Application Process. 78

9.3.4        Application Event 78

9.3.5        Application Service. 79

9.3.6        Example. 79

9.4      Passive Structure Elements. 80

9.4.1        Data Object 80

9.4.2        Example. 81

9.5      Summary of Application Layer Elements. 81

10       Technology Layer 83

10.1   Technology Layer Metamodel 83

10.2   Active Structure Elements. 83

10.2.1      Node. 84

10.2.2      Device. 85

10.2.3      System Software. 85

10.2.4      Technology Collaboration. 86

10.2.5      Technology Interface. 86

10.2.6      Path. 87

10.2.7      Communication Network. 87

10.2.8      Example. 88

10.3   Behavior Elements. 89

10.3.1      Technology Function. 90

10.3.2      Technology Process. 90

10.3.3      Technology Interaction. 91

10.3.4      Technology Event 91

10.3.5      Technology Service. 92

10.3.6      Example. 92

10.4   Passive Structure Elements. 93

10.4.1      Artifact 94

10.4.2      Example. 94

10.5   Summary of Technology Layer Elements. 95

11       Physical Elements. 97

11.1   Physical Elements Metamodel 97

11.2   Active Structure Elements. 97

11.2.1      Equipment 98

11.2.2      Facility. 98

11.2.3      Distribution Network. 99

11.3   Behavior Elements. 99

11.4   Passive Structure Elements. 99

11.4.1      Material 99

11.5   Example. 100

11.6   Summary of Physical Elements. 100

12       Relationships Between Core Layers. 102

12.1   Alignment of the Business Layer and Lower Layers. 102

12.2   Alignment of the Application and Technology Layers. 103

12.3   Example. 103

13       Implementation and Migration Elements. 105

13.1   Implementation and Migration Elements Metamodel 105

13.2   Implementation and Migration Elements. 105

13.2.1      Work Package. 105

13.2.2      Deliverable. 106

13.2.3      Implementation Event 106

13.2.4      Plateau. 107

13.2.5      Gap. 107

13.2.6      Example. 108

13.2.7      Summary of Implementation and Migration Elements. 108

13.3   Relationships. 109

13.4   Relationships with Other Aspects and Layers. 109

14       Stakeholders, Architecture Views, and Viewpoints. 111

14.1   Introduction. 111

14.2   Stakeholders and Concerns. 111

14.3   Architecture Views and Viewpoints. 112

14.4   Viewpoint Mechanism.. 113

14.4.1      Defining and Classifying Viewpoints. 114

14.4.2      Creating the View.. 115

14.5   Example Viewpoints. 115

15       Language Customization Mechanisms. 116

15.1   Adding Attributes to ArchiMate Elements and Relationships. 116

15.2   Specialization of Elements and Relationships. 117

15.2.1      Examples of Specializations of Business Layer Elements (Informative) 118

15.2.2      Examples of Specializations of Application Layer Elements (Informative) 119

15.2.3      Examples of Specializations of Technology Layer Elements (Informative) 119

15.2.4      Examples of Specializations of Physical Elements (Informative) 120

15.2.5      Examples of Specializations of Motivation Elements (Informative) 120

15.2.6      Examples of Specializations of Strategy Elements (Informative) 121

15.2.7      Examples of Specializations of Implementation and Migration Elements (Informative) 122

15.2.8      Examples of Specializations of Composite Elements (Informative) 122

15.2.9      Examples of Specializations of Relationships (Informative) 123

A         Summary of Language Notation. 124

A.1     Core Elements. 125

A.2     Motivation, Strategy, Implementation and Migration Elements. 126

A.3     Relationships. 127

B         Relationships (Normative) 128

B.1     Specification of Derivation Rules. 128

B.2     Derivation Rules for Valid Relationships. 128

B.2.1        Valid Derivations for Specialization Relationships. 128

B.2.2        Valid Derivations for Structural Relationships. 129

B.2.3        Valid Derivations for Dependency Relationships. 130

B.2.4        Valid Derivations for Dynamic Relationships. 131

B.3     Derivation Rules for Potential Relationships. 133

B.3.1        Potential Derivation for Specialization Relationships. 134

B.3.2        Potential Derivation for Structural and Dependency Relationships  137

B.3.3        Potential Derivation for Dependency Relationships. 137

B.3.4        Potential Derivation for Dynamic Relationships. 138

B.4     Restrictions on Applying Derivation Rules. 139

B.5     Relationship Tables. 140

B.6     Grouping, Plateau, and Relationships Between Relationships. 151

C         Example Viewpoints. 152

C.1     Basic Viewpoints in the ArchiMate Language. 152

C.1.1        Organization Viewpoint 154

C.1.2        Application Structure Viewpoint 155

C.1.3        Information Structure Viewpoint 155

C.1.4        Technology Viewpoint 156

C.1.5        Layered Viewpoint 157

C.1.6        Physical Viewpoint 157

C.1.7        Product Viewpoint 158

C.1.8        Application Usage Viewpoint 159

C.1.9        Technology Usage Viewpoint 160

C.1.10     Business Process Cooperation Viewpoint 160

C.1.11     Application Cooperation Viewpoint 161

C.1.12     Service Realization Viewpoint 162

C.1.13     Implementation and Deployment Viewpoint 163

C.2     Motivation Viewpoints. 163

C.2.1        Stakeholder Viewpoint 164

C.2.2        Goal Realization Viewpoint 165

C.2.3        Requirements Realization Viewpoint 165

C.2.4        Motivation Viewpoint 166

C.3     Strategy Viewpoints. 167

C.3.1        Strategy Viewpoint 167

C.3.2        Capability Map Viewpoint 168

C.3.3        Value Stream Viewpoint 168

C.3.4        Outcome Realization Viewpoint 169

C.3.5        Resource Map Viewpoint 169

C.4     Implementation and Migration Viewpoints. 170

C.4.1        Project Viewpoint 170

C.4.2        Migration Viewpoint 171

C.4.3        Implementation and Migration Viewpoint 171

D         Relationship to Other Standards, Specifications, and Guidance Documents. 173

D.1     The TOGAF Framework. 173

D.2     The BIZBOK Guide. 174

D.3     BPMN.. 174

D.4     UML. 175

D.5     BMM.. 176

E         Changes from Version 2.1 to Version 3.1. 177

E.1      Changes from Version 2.1 to Version 3.0.1. 177

E.2      Changes from Version 3.0.1 to Version 3.1. 178

 



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