ArchiMate® 3.1 Specification
Copyright © 2012-2019 The Open Group

E                     Changes from Version 2.1 to Version 3.1

E.1                Changes from Version 2.1 to Version 3.0.1

The main changes between Version 2.1 and Version 3.0 of the ArchiMate Specification are listed below. Note that this is not an exhaustive list; various smaller improvements have been made throughout the text of the document.

               Changed various definitions to increase alignment with the TOGAF framework

               Added an upper-level generic metamodel to explain the full structure of the language

               Restructured the set of relationships into structural, dynamic, dependency, and other relationships

               Allowed relationships to other relationships in some cases; e.g., to associate objects with flows or aggregate relationships within plateaus

               Improved the derivation of relationships

               Relaxed the constraints on relationships between layers in the ArchiMate core language

               Improved the grouping and junction concepts

               Renamed the “used by” relationship to “serving”, in line with the other active names of relationships

               Changed the notation of the influence relationship for consistency with the other dependency relationships (access and serving)

               Introduced a directional notation for the assignment relationship by replacing the black circle at the “to” end by an arrow

               Added an optional notation to denote the layer of an element

A letter M, S, B, A, T, P, or I in the top-left corner of an element can be used to denote a Motivation, Strategy, Business, Application, Technology, Physical, or Implementation & Migration element, respectively.

               Changed the notation of the representation and contract elements, to distinguish these from deliverable and business object, respectively

               Added events (with a time attribute) at all layers in the ArchiMate core language as well as to the implementation and migration elements

               Renamed the Motivation Extension to motivation elements and introduced a new outcome element

               Moved the value and meaning concepts from the Business Layer of the ArchiMate core language to the motivation elements

               Introduced new strategy elements for modeling the enterprise at a strategic level, notably capability, resource, and course of action

               Moved the location element to the generic metamodel

               Abolished the “required interface” notation

               Renamed the elements in the Technology Layer from infrastructure x to technology x

               Added application process, technology process, technology interaction, and technology collaboration, to increase the regularity of the layers

               Extended the Technology Layer with elements for modeling the physical world: facility, equipment, material, and distribution network

               Renamed the “communication path” element to “path” and extended its meaning, to integrate with the physical elements

               Improved the description of viewpoints and the viewpoints mechanism, removed the introductory viewpoint, and moved the basic viewpoints listed in the standard to an informative appendix to indicate they are intended as examples, not as a normative or exhaustive list

               Replaced the examples throughout the document

               Described the relationships of the ArchiMate standard with several other standards

               Created new tables of relationships based on the changes in the metamodel and derivation properties

ArchiMate 2.1 models are still mostly valid in ArchiMate 3.0.1. Two transformations may be applied to ensure conformance to the new version of the standard:

·           Rename “used by” relationships to “serving”

·           If a relationship between two elements in a model is no longer permitted (according to Appendix B), replace it by an association

If it concerns an assignment of an application component to a business process or function, this may be replaced by a realization relationship from the application component to the business process or function. If it concerns an assignment of a location to another element, this may be replaced by an aggregation. In some cases, the modeler may want to replace the location by a facility.

E.2                Changes from Version 3.0.1 to Version 3.1

The main changes between Version 3.0.1 and Version 3.1 of the ArchiMate Specification are listed below. In addition to these changes, various other minor improvements in definitions and other wording have been made.

·           Introduced a new strategy element: value stream

·           Added an optional directed notation for the association relationship

·           Improved the organization of the metamodel and associated figures

·           Further improved and formalized the derivation of relationships

The formalization of the derivation rules as mentioned above has had a minor impact on the metamodel structure, since some relationships can now be derived that formerly had to be specified explicitly in the metamodel. It has also led to the removal of a small number of spurious relationships. To transform an ArchiMate 3.0.1 model to ArchiMate 3.1, any such relationship may be replaced by a directed association.


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Downloads of the ArchiMate documentation are available under license from the Download link within the ArchiMate information web site. The license is free to any organization wishing to use ArchiMate documentation entirely for internal purposes. A book is also available from The Open Group Library as document C197.

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