A. Glossary of Supplementary Definitions

This appendix contains additional definitions to supplement the definitions contained in 3. Definitions .

A.1 Application Software

Software entities which have a specific business purpose.

A.2 Availability

In the context of IT systems, the probability that system functional capabilities are ready for use by a user at any time, where all time is considered, including operations, repair, administration, and logistic time. Availability is further defined by system category for both routine and priority operations.

A.3 Business System

Hardware, software, policy statements, processes, activities, standards, and people which together implement a business function.

A.4 Catalog

A structured list of architectural outputs of a similar kind, used for reference. For example, a technology standards catalog or an application portfolio.

A.5 Client

An application component which requests services from a server.


An acronym for Control OBjectives for Information and related Technology, created by the Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA) and the IT Governance Institute (ITGI), which provides a set of recommended best practices for the governance/management of information systems and technology.

A.7 Configuration Management

A discipline applying technical and administrative direction and surveillance to:

Also, the management of the configuration of Enterprise Architecture practice (intellectual property) assets and baselines and the control of change over of those assets.

A.8 Contract

An agreement between a service consumer and a service provider that establishes functional and non-functional parameters for interaction.

A.9 Control

A decision-making step with accompanying decision logic used to determine execution approach for a process or to ensure that a process complies with governance criteria. For example, a sign-off control on the purchase request processing process that checks whether the total value of the request is within the sign-off limits of the requester, or whether it needs escalating to higher authority.

A.10 CxO

The chief officer within a particular function of the business; e.g., Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer, Chief Information Officer, Chief Technology Officer.

A.11 Data Dictionary

A specialized type of database containing metadata; a repository of information describing the characteristics of data used to design, monitor, document, protect, and control data in information systems and databases; an application system supporting the definition and management of database metadata.

A.12 Data Element

A basic unit of information having a meaning and that may have subcategories (data items) of distinct units and values.

A.13 Data Entity

An encapsulation of data that is recognized by a business domain expert as a thing. Logical data entities can be tied to applications, repositories, and services and may be structured according to implementation considerations.

A.14 Database

A structured or organized collection of data entities, which is to be accessed by a computer.

A.15 Database Management System

A computer application program that accesses or manipulates the database.

A.16 Driver

An external or internal condition that motivates the organization to define its goals. An example of an external driver is a change in regulation or compliance rules which, for example, require changes to the way an organization operates; i.e., Sarbanes-Oxley in the US.

A.17 End User

Person who ultimately uses the computer application or output.

A.18 Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) System

A complete suite of integrated applications that support the major business support functions of an organization; e.g., Financial (AP/AR/GL), HR, Payroll, Stock, Order Processing and Invoicing, Purchasing, Logistics, Manufacturing, etc.

A.19 Event

An organizational state change that triggers processing events may originate from inside or outside the organization and may be resolved inside or outside the organization.

A.20 Functional Decomposition

A hierarchy of the functions of an enterprise or organization.

A.21 Goal

A high-level statement of intent or direction for an organization. Typically used to measure success of an organization.

A.22 Guideline

An architectural document that provides guidance on the optimal ways to carry out design or implementation activities.

A.23 Hardware

The physical infrastructure needed to run software; e.g., servers, workstations, network equipment, etc.

A.24 Information Domain

Grouping of information (or data entities) by a set of criteria such as security classification, ownership, location, etc. In the context of security, information domains are defined as a set of users, their information objects, and a security policy.

A.25 Information System (IS)

The computer (or IT)-based portion of a business system.

A.26 Interaction

A relationship between architectural building blocks (i.e., services or components) that embodies communication or usage.

A.27 Interaction Model

An architectural view, catalog, or matrix that shows a particular type of interaction. For example, a diagram showing application integration.

A.28 Interface

Interconnection and inter-relationships between, for example, people, systems, devices, applications, or the user and an application or device.

A.29 Key Performance Indicator (KPI)

A way of quantifying the performance of the business or project.

A.30 Lifecycle

The period of time that begins when a system is conceived and ends when the system is no longer available for use.

A.31 Location

A place where business activity takes place and can be hierarchically decomposed.

A.32 Logical Application Component

An encapsulation of application functionality that is independent of a particular implementation. For example, the classification of all purchase request processing applications implemented in an enterprise.

A.33 Logical Data Component

A boundary zone that encapsulates related data entities to form a logical location to be held. For example, external procurement information.

A.34 Logical Technology Component

An encapsulation of technology infrastructure that is independent of a particular product. A class of technology product. For example, supply chain management software as part of an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) suite or a Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) purchase request processing enterprise service.

A.35 Managing Successful Programs (MSP)

A best practice methodology for program management, developed by the UK Office of Government Commerce (OGC).

A.36 Matrix

A format for showing the relationship between two (or more) architectural elements in a grid format.

A.37 Measure

An indicator or factor that can be tracked, usually on an ongoing basis, to determine success or alignment with objectives and goals.

A.38 Metaview

A pattern or template of the view, from which to develop individual views. Establishes the purposes and audience for a view, the ways in which the view is documented (e.g., for visual modeling), and the ways in which it is used (e.g., for analysis).

See also 3.18 Architecture Viewpoint in 3. Definitions .

A.39 Open System

A system that implements sufficient open specifications for interfaces, services, and supporting formats to enable properly engineered application software:

A.40 Operational Governance

The operational performance of systems against contracted performance levels, the definition of operational performance levels, and the implementation of systems that ensure effective operation of systems.

See also 3.43 Governance in 3. Definitions .

A.41 Packaged Services

Services that are acquired from the market from a Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) vendor, rather than being constructed via code build.

A.42 Physical Application Component

An application, application module, application service, or other deployable component of functionality. For example, a configured and deployed instance of a Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) supply chain management application.

A.43 Physical Data Component

A boundary zone that encapsulates related data entities to form a physical location to be held. For example, a purchase order business object, comprising purchase order header and item business object nodes.

A.44 Physical Technology Component

A specific technology infrastructure product or technology infrastructure product instance. For example, a particular product version of a Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) solution, or a specific brand and version of server.

A.45 Portability

  1. The ease with which a system, component, data, or user can be transferred from one hardware or software environment to another.
  2. A quality metric that can be used to measure the relative effort to transport the software for use in another environment or to convert software for use in another operating environment, hardware configuration, or software system environment.

A.46 Portfolio

The complete set of change activities or systems that exist within the organization or part of the organization. For example, application portfolio and project portfolio.


An acronym for PRojects IN Controlled Environments, which is a standard project management method.

A.48 Process

A process represents a sequence of activities that together achieve a specified outcome, can be decomposed into sub-processes, and can show operation of a function or service (at next level of detail). Processes may also be used to link or compose organizations, functions, services, and processes.

A.49 Product

Output generated by the business. The business product of the execution of a process.

A.50 Profile

A set of one or more base standards and, where applicable, the identification of those classes, subsets, options, and parameters of those base standards, necessary for accomplishing a particular function.

A.51 Profiling

Identifying standards and characteristics of a particular system.

A.52 Program

A co-ordinated set of change projects that deliver business benefit to the organization.

A.53 Project

A single change project which delivers business benefit to the organization.

A.54 Risk Management

The management of risks and issues that may threaten the success of the Enterprise Architecture practice and its ability to meet its vision, goals, and objectives, and, importantly, its service provision.

Risk management is described in Part III, 27. Risk Management .

A.55 Scalability

The ability to use the same application software on many different classes of hardware/software platforms from PCs to super-computers (extends the portability concept). The capability to grow to accommodate increased work loads.

A.56 Security

Services which protect data, ensuring its confidentiality, availability, and integrity.

A.57 Server

An application component which responds to requests from a client.

A.58 Service Quality

A preset configuration of non-functional attributes that may be assigned to a service or service contract.


An acronym for Specific, Measurable, Actionable, Realistic, and Time-bound, which is an approach to ensure that targets and objectives are set in a way that can be achieved and measured.

A.60 Supplier Management

The management of suppliers of products and services to the Enterprise Architecture practice in concert with larger corporate procurement activities.

A.61 System

A combination of interacting elements organized to achieve one or more stated purposes (Source: ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288:2015).

A.62 Time Period

The timeframe over which the potential impact is to be measured.

A.63 Transaction

Interaction between a user and a computer in which the user inputs a command to receive a specific result from the computer.

A.64 Use-Case

A view of organization, application, or product functionality that illustrates capabilities in context with the user of that capability.

A.65 User

  1. Any person, organization, or functional unit that uses the services of an information processing system.
  2. In a conceptual schema language, any person or any thing that may issue or receive commands and messages to or from the information system.

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