Previous section.

Systems Management: Software License Use Management (XSLM)
Copyright © 1999 The Open Group

Recording and Logging

A crucial function of a XSLM licensing system is to collect and record data about the usage of the licensed products and about relevant events related to license management. The information maintained by a XSLM licensing system can be divided in two categories: certificate related data (that is data based on the information present on the original certificate and on the subsequent manipulation of some of these) and historic data. In a different perspective, the information maintained by a XSLM licensing system can be divided into "transient data" and "persistent data". The transient data is the one which is valid only as long as the licensing system is running, and is lost when the licensing system stops, while the persistent data is committed to permanent storage and is valid across license server runs. From this point of view, the certificate related data is made of both transient and persistent data, while the historic data is always persistent.

The certificate-related data is the combination of information provided by the application software publisher (the certificate), information created and maintained by the licensing system, and information provided by the customerís license administrator (through a license management tool).

Changes in some of the certificate related data may be triggered by licensing system events such as the request for a new license, or a change in the policy setting (e.g. the administrator switching from soft stop to hard stop) or the expiration of a timer.

The historic data is the persistent log of events relevant to license management. Most of the events related to the license administrator actions are always logged, as they may constitute an audit trail. The logging of events related to license usage is usually under an administratorís control, unless the publisher, through information on the certificate, enforces logging.

The physical format of the log file is not specified here. It is up to each licensing system implementation to determine the form (text, binary, or a combination of the two) of the log records, as well as the type of file system(s) supported for storing them.

Likewise, an implementation may choose to implement any kind of proprietary integrity check to insure the records have not been tampered with. However, ultimate responsibility for the integrity and security of the log file, and of the file system of which it is a part, lies with the underlying (operating system and hardware) platform.

Certificate Related Data

As described above, the certificate related data is comprised of:

In a more general meaning, this data is kept alive by the licensing system during the normal operational time and always represents the latest available information. This may or may not be logged (becoming historic data) depending on the administrator, within the limits imposed by the publisher.

Licensing System Generated Data

Each data element described below is related to a specific certificate and uniquely identifies a specific instance of a certificate.

Administrator-Defined Data

Each data element described below is related to a specific certificate and uniquely identifies a specific instance of a certificate.

Historic Data

A Licensing System will log a number of events, in order for the customer's license administrator (and also for the application software publisher) to derive useful information about the use of the application. The events are classified either as mandatory (that is, the licensing system will always log the event) or optional, that is, the licensing system will always log the event unless instructed not to do so by the administrator:

The logged events are divided into three classes:

In the tables below are described the events logged for each class, and the data logged for each event. The event type and subtype further define which event has occurred, within a class, and can be used as filters for the retrieval of logged events.


Logged Events of Class ADMINISTRATION

Event Type Event Subtype Logged Data
INSTALL NEW
The installation of a new Certificate by an Administrator through a management tool into the License Data Base

SERVER_TIME_STAMP
CLIENT_TIME_STAMP
LICENSE_SERVER_ID
LICENSE_SYSTEM_INFO
ADMINISTRATOR
ADMINISTRATOR_NODE
CERTIFICATE_ID
INSTALL_ANNOTATION
  _ _
  REPLACE
The replacement of an existing Certificate in the License database with a new one overriding it

SERVER_TIME_STAMP
CLIENT_TIME_STAMP
LICENSE_SERVER_ID
LICENSE_SYSTEM_INFO
ADMINISTRATOR
ADMINISTRATOR_NODE
CERTIFICATE_ID
REPLACE_CERTIFICATE
INSTALL_ANNOTATION
DELETE NULL
The deletion of a Certificate from the License Data Base
SERVER_TIME_STAMP CLIENT_TIME_STAMP LICENSE_SERVER_ID LICENSE_SYSTEM_INFO ADMINISTRATOR ADMINISTRATOR_NODE CERTIFICATE_ID REMOVE_ANNOTATION
ASSIGN UNITS
The assignment, as performed by an Administrator, of the number of available units of use for a specific Certificate, when requested by the publisher

SERVER_TIME_STAMP
CLIENT_TIME_STAMP
LICENSE_SERVER_ID
LICENSE_SYSTEM_INFO
ADMINISTRATOR
ADMINISTRATOR_NODE
CERTIFICATE_ID
ASSIGNED_LICENSED_UNITS
  _ _
  NODES
The assignment, as performed by an Administrator, of the Certificate to one or more nodes (machines) to which the usage of the usage of the application will be restricted, if requested by the publisher

SERVER_TIME_STAMP
CLIENT_TIME_STAMP
LICENSE_SERVER_ID
LICENSE_SYSTEM_INFO
ADMINISTRATOR
ADMINISTRATOR_NODE
CERTIFICATE_ID
ASSIGNED_NODE_LIST
  _ _
  USERS
The assignment, as performed by an Administrator, of the Certificate to one or more users which will be allowed to use the application, if requested by the publisher

SERVER_TIME_STAMP
CLIENT_TIME_STAMP
LICENSE_SERVER_ID
LICENSE_SYSTEM_INFO
ADMINISTRATOR
ADMINISTRATOR_NODE
CERTIFICATE_ID
ASSIGNED_NODE_USER_LIST
  _ _
  CAPACITY
The assignment, as performed by an Administrator, of the Certificate to specific Capacity limits to which the application will be restricted, if allowed by the publisher

SERVER_TIME_STAMP
CLIENT_TIME_STAMP
LICENSE_SERVER_ID
LICENSE_SYSTEM_INFO
ADMINISTRATOR
ADMINISTRATOR_NODE
CERTIFICATE_ID
ASSIGNED_CAPACITY_LIST
  _ _
  CONSUMPTIVE_COUNTERS
The assignment, as performed by an Administrator, of the Certificate to a specific initial value for Consumptive Counters, if required by the publisher

SERVER_TIME_STAMP
CLIENT_TIME_STAMP
LICENSE_SERVER_ID
LICENSE_SYSTEM_INFO
ADMINISTRATOR
ADMINISTRATOR_NODE
CERTIFICATE_ID
ASSIGNED_CNSMPTV_CNTRS


SET_POLICY
HARD_SOFT_STOP


The setting performed by an Administrator of the current policy
in effect for a specific Certificate from Soft Stop to Hard Stop and
vice versa


SERVER_TIME_STAMP
CLIENT_TIME_STAMP
LICENSE_SERVER_ID
LICENSE_SYSTEM_INFO
ADMINISTRATOR
ADMINISTRATOR_NODE
CERTIFICATE_ID
HARD_SOFT_STOP_POLICY
  _ _
  CONFIRM_INTERVAL
The setting of the Confirmation Interval, performed by an Administrator, for a specific Certificate within the range (if present) specified in the Certificate

SERVER_TIME_STAMP
CLIENT_TIME_STAMP
LICENSE_SERVER_ID
LICENSE_SYSTEM_INFO
ADMINISTRATOR
ADMINISTRATOR_NODE
CERTIFICATE_ID
CONFIRM_INTERVAL_VALUE
  _ _
  RESET_ADMINISTRATOR _HIGH_WATER_MARK
The resetting (to zero), performed by an Administrator, of the value maintained by the licensing system for the maximum number of licenses concurrently in use for a specific Certificate

SERVER_TIME_STAMP
CLIENT_TIME_STAMP
LICENSE_SERVER_ID
LICENSE_SYSTEM_INFO
ADMINISTRATOR
ADMINISTRATOR_NODE
CERTIFICATE_ID
HIGH_WATER_MARK_VALUE
  _ _
  RESET_COUNTERS
The resetting performed by an Administrator, of the value maintained by the licensing system for one or more counters, if allowed by the publisher

SERVER_TIME_STAMP
CLIENT_TIME_STAMP
LICENSE_SERVER_ID
LICENSE_SYSTEM_INFO
ADMINISTRATOR
ADMINISTRATOR_NODE
CERTIFICATE_ID
ADMIN_RESET_COUNTER_LIST
  _ _
  MASK_EVENTS
The setting, performed by an Administrator, to stop (mask) the logging of one or more events, if allowed by the publisher

SERVER_TIME_STAMP
CLIENT_TIME_STAMP
LICENSE_SERVER_ID
LICENSE_SYSTEM_INFO
ADMINISTRATOR
ADMINISTRATOR_NODE
CERTIFICATE_ID
MASKED_EVENTS
  _ _
  RELEASE_UNITS
The (forced) release of one or more license units in use, as performed by the Administrator

SERVER_TIME_STAMP
CLIENT_TIME_STAMP
LICENSE_SERVER_ID
LICENSE_SYSTEM_INFO
ADMINISTRATOR
ADMINISTRATOR_NODE
CERTIFICATE_ID
FORCED_RELEASE_UNITS
  _ _
  DISASTER_RECOVERY
The setting or resetting, performed by an Administrator, of "Disaster Recovery Mode, if allowed by the publisher

SERVER_TIME_STAMP
CLIENT_TIME_STAMP
LICENSE_SERVER_ID
LICENSE_SYSTEM_INFO
ADMINISTRATOR
ADMINISTRATOR_NODE
DISASTER_RECOVERY_MODE


Logged Events of Class APPLICATION

Event Type Event Subtype Logged Data
LOG_MESSAGE NULL
A free-form text message as issued by the application and stored in the log file

SERVER_TIME_STAMP
CLIENT_TIME_STAMP
LICENSE_SERVER_ID
LICENSE_SYSTEM_INFO
REQUESTOR_ID
CERTIFICATE_ID
SESSION_HANDLE
TRANSACTION_HANDLE
LOGGED_MESSAGE
RETURN_STATUS
REQUEST_LICENSE GRANTED
The successful granting of one or more licenses by the Licensing System to the requesting application

SERVER_TIME_STAMP
CLIENT_TIME_STAMP
LICENSE_SERVER_ID
LICENSE_SYSTEM_INFO
REQUESTOR_ID
CERTIFICATE_ID
SESSION_HANDLE
TRANSACTION_HANDLE
REQUESTED_UNITS
GRANTED_UNITS
RETURN_STATUS
  _ _
  DENIED
The denial by the Licensing System of the license(s) requested by the application

SERVER_TIME_STAMP
CLIENT_TIME_STAMP
LICENSE_SERVER_ID
LICENSE_SYSTEM_INFO
REQUESTOR_ID
CERTIFICATE_ID
SESSION_HANDLE
TRANSACTION_HANDLE
REQUESTED_UNITS
RETURN_STATUS
RELEASE_LICENSE NULL
The successful returning to the pool of available licenses (releasing) of one or more licenses, as performed by the application

SERVER_TIME_STAMP
CLIENT_TIME_STAMP
LICENSE_SERVER_ID
LICENSE_SYSTEM_INFO
REQUESTOR_ID
CERTIFICATE_ID
SESSION_HANDLE
TRANSACTION_HANDLE
RETURNED_UNITS
RETURN_STATUS
CONFIRM
NULL The confirmation performed by the application to the Licensing System, of the in-use status for one or more licenses

SERVER_TIME_STAMP
CLIENT_TIME_STAMP
LICENSE_SERVER_ID
LICENSE_SYSTEM_INFO
REQUESTOR_ID
CERTIFICATE_ID
SESSION_HANDLE
TRANSACTION_HANDLE
CONFIRM_INTERVAL_VALUE
RETURN_STATUS
RECORD CONSUMPTIVE
The successful updating performed by the Licensing System of a consumptive counter, as requested by the application

SERVER_TIME_STAMP
CLIENT_TIME_STAMP
LICENSE_SERVER_ID
LICENSE_SYSTEM_INFO
REQUESTOR_ID
CERTIFICATE_ID
SESSION_HANDLE
TRANSACTION_HANDLE
COUNTER_UNITS
RETURN_STATUS
  _ _
  CUMULATIVE
The successful updating performed by the Licensing System of a cumulative counter, as requested by the application

SERVER_TIME_STAMP
CLIENT_TIME_STAMP
LICENSE_SERVER_ID
LICENSE_SYSTEM_INFO
REQUESTOR_ID
CERTIFICATE_ID
SESSION_HANDLE
TRANSACTION_HANDLE
COUNTER_UNITS
RETURN_STATUS
BEGIN_SESSION NULL
The successful start of a licensing session, as requested by the application

SERVER_TIME_STAMP
CLIENT_TIME_STAMP
REQUESTOR_ID
SESSION_HANDLE
RETURNED_STATUS
END_SESSION NULL
The completion of a licensing session, as requested by the application

SERVER_TIME_STAMP
CLIENT_TIME_STAMP
REQUESTOR_ID
SESSION_HANDLE
RETURNED_STATUS


Logged Events of Class LICENSING_SYSTEM

Event Type Event Subtype Logged Data
LICENSE_SERVER_START NULL
The successful start of the license server activity

SERVER_TIME_STAMP
CLIENT_TIME_STAMP
LICENSE_SERVER_ID
LICENSE_SYSTEM_INFO
ADMINISTRATOR_ID
LICENSE_SERVER_STOP NULL
The normal stop of the license server activity

SERVER_TIME_STAMP
CLIENT_TIME_STAMP
LICENSE_SERVER_ID
LICENSE_SYSTEM_INFO
ADMINISTRATOR_ID
RESET PUBLISHER_HIGH_WATER_MARK
The resetting (to zero), as performed by the licensing system, of the value maintained for the maximum number of licenses concurrently in use for a specific certificate

SERVER_TIME_STAMP
CLIENT_TIME_STAMP
LICENSE_SERVER_ID
LICENSE_SYSTEM_INFO
CERTIFICATE_ID
PUBLISHER_HWM_VALUE
  _ _
  COUNTERS
The resetting (to zero), as performed by the licensing system, of the value maintained for one or more counters

SERVER_TIME_STAMP
CLIENT_TIME_STAMP
LICENSE_SERVER_ID
LICENSE_SYSTEM_INFO
SYSTEM_RESET_COUNTR_LIST
ERRORS SYSTEM
Any error as detected by the licensing system

SERVER_TIME_STAMP
CLIENT_TIME_STAMP
LICENSE_SERVER_ID
LICENSE_SYSTEM_INFO
SYSTEM_ERROR_CODE
SYSTEM_ERROR_MESSAGE


Why not acquire a nicely bound hard copy?
Click here to return to the publication details or order a copy of this publication.

Contents Next section Index