The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 7
IEEE Std 1003.1-2008
Copyright © 2001-2008 The IEEE and The Open Group


endpwent, getpwent, setpwent - user database functions


[XSI] [Option Start] #include <pwd.h>

void endpwent(void);
struct passwd *getpwent(void);
void setpwent(void); [Option End]


These functions shall retrieve information about users.

The getpwent() function shall return a pointer to a structure containing the broken-out fields of an entry in the user database. Each entry in the user database contains a passwd structure. When first called, getpwent() shall return a pointer to a passwd structure containing the first entry in the user database. Thereafter, it shall return a pointer to a passwd structure containing the next entry in the user database. Successive calls can be used to search the entire user database.

If an end-of-file or an error is encountered on reading, getpwent() shall return a null pointer.

An implementation that provides extended security controls may impose further implementation-defined restrictions on accessing the user database. In particular, the system may deny the existence of some or all of the user database entries associated with users other than the caller.

The setpwent() function effectively rewinds the user database to allow repeated searches.

The endpwent() function may be called to close the user database when processing is complete.

These functions need not be thread-safe.


The getpwent() function shall return a null pointer on end-of-file or error.


These functions may fail if:

An I/O error has occurred.

In addition, getpwent() and setpwent() may fail if:

All file descriptors available to the process are currently open.
The maximum allowable number of files is currently open in the system.

The return value may point to a static area which is overwritten by a subsequent call to getpwuid(), getpwnam(), or getpwent().

The following sections are informative.


Searching the User Database

The following example uses the getpwent() function to get successive entries in the user database, returning a pointer to a passwd structure that contains information about each user. The call to endpwent() closes the user database and cleans up.

#include <pwd.h>
#include <stdio.h>

void printname(uid_t uid) { struct passwd *pwd;
setpwent(); while((pwd = getpwent()) != NULL) { if (pwd->pw_uid == uid) { printf("name=%s\n",pwd->pw_name); break; } } endpwent(); }


These functions are provided due to their historical usage. Applications should avoid dependencies on fields in the password database, whether the database is a single file, or where in the file system name space the database resides. Applications should use getpwuid() whenever possible because it avoids these dependencies.






endgrent , getlogin , getpwnam , getpwuid

XBD <pwd.h>


First released in Issue 4, Version 2.

Issue 5

Moved from X/OPEN UNIX extension to BASE.

Normative text previously in the APPLICATION USAGE section is moved to the RETURN VALUE section.

A note indicating that these functions need not be reentrant is added to the DESCRIPTION.

Issue 6

In the DESCRIPTION, the note about reentrancy is expanded to cover thread-safety.

Issue 7

Austin Group Interpretation 1003.1-2001 #156 is applied.

SD5-XBD-ERN-4 is applied, changing the definition of the [EMFILE] error.

The EXAMPLES section is revised.

End of informative text.


return to top of page

UNIX ® is a registered Trademark of The Open Group.
POSIX ® is a registered Trademark of The IEEE.
Copyright © 2001-2008 The IEEE and The Open Group, All Rights Reserved
[ Main Index | XBD | XSH | XCU | XRAT ]