The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 7, 2018 edition
IEEE Std 1003.1-2017 (Revision of IEEE Std 1003.1-2008)
Copyright © 2001-2018 IEEE and The Open Group


wcstol, wcstoll - convert a wide-character string to a long integer


#include <wchar.h>

long wcstol(const wchar_t *restrict
nptr, wchar_t **restrict endptr,
long long wcstoll(const wchar_t *restrict
       wchar_t **restrict
endptr, int base);


[CX] [Option Start] The functionality described on this reference page is aligned with the ISO C standard. Any conflict between the requirements described here and the ISO C standard is unintentional. This volume of POSIX.1-2017 defers to the ISO C standard. [Option End]

These functions shall convert the initial portion of the wide-character string pointed to by nptr to long and long long, respectively. First, they shall decompose the input string into three parts:

  1. An initial, possibly empty, sequence of white-space wide-character codes (as specified by iswspace())

  2. A subject sequence interpreted as an integer represented in some radix determined by the value of base

  3. A final wide-character string of one or more unrecognized wide-character codes, including the terminating null wide-character code of the input wide-character string

Then they shall attempt to convert the subject sequence to an integer, and return the result.

If base is 0, the expected form of the subject sequence is that of a decimal constant, octal constant, or hexadecimal constant, any of which may be preceded by a '+' or '-' sign. A decimal constant begins with a non-zero digit, and consists of a sequence of decimal digits. An octal constant consists of the prefix '0' optionally followed by a sequence of the digits '0' to '7' only. A hexadecimal constant consists of the prefix 0x or 0X followed by a sequence of the decimal digits and letters 'a' (or 'A' ) to 'f' (or 'F' ) with values 10 to 15 respectively.

If the value of base is between 2 and 36, the expected form of the subject sequence is a sequence of letters and digits representing an integer with the radix specified by base, optionally preceded by a '+' or '-' sign, but not including an integer suffix. The letters from 'a' (or 'A' ) to 'z' (or 'Z' ) inclusive are ascribed the values 10 to 35; only letters whose ascribed values are less than that of base shall be permitted. If the value of base is 16, the wide-character code representations of 0x or 0X may optionally precede the sequence of letters and digits, following the sign if present.

The subject sequence is defined as the longest initial subsequence of the input wide-character string, starting with the first non-white-space wide-character code that is of the expected form. The subject sequence contains no wide-character codes if the input wide-character string is empty or consists entirely of white-space wide-character code, or if the first non-white-space wide-character code is other than a sign or a permissible letter or digit.

If the subject sequence has the expected form and base is 0, the sequence of wide-character codes starting with the first digit shall be interpreted as an integer constant. If the subject sequence has the expected form and the value of base is between 2 and 36, it shall be used as the base for conversion, ascribing to each letter its value as given above. If the subject sequence begins with a <hyphen-minus>, the value resulting from the conversion shall be negated. A pointer to the final wide-character string shall be stored in the object pointed to by endptr, provided that endptr is not a null pointer.

In other than the C [CX] [Option Start]  or POSIX [Option End] locale, additional locale-specific subject sequence forms may be accepted.

If the subject sequence is empty or does not have the expected form, no conversion shall be performed; the value of nptr shall be stored in the object pointed to by endptr, provided that endptr is not a null pointer.

These functions shall not change the setting of errno if successful.

Since 0, {LONG_MIN} or {LLONG_MIN} and {LONG_MAX} or {LLONG_MAX} are returned on error and are also valid returns on success, an application wishing to check for error situations should set errno to 0, then call wcstol() or wcstoll(), then check errno.


Upon successful completion, these functions shall return the converted value, if any. If no conversion could be performed, 0 shall be returned [CX] [Option Start]  and errno may be set to indicate the error. [Option End] If the correct value is outside the range of representable values, {LONG_MIN}, {LONG_MAX}, {LLONG_MIN}, or {LLONG_MAX} shall be returned (according to the sign of the value), and errno set to [ERANGE].


These functions shall fail if:

[CX] [Option Start] The value of base is not supported. [Option End]
The value to be returned is not representable.

These functions may fail if:

[CX] [Option Start] No conversion could be performed. [Option End]

The following sections are informative.










fscanf, iswalpha, wcstod

XBD <wchar.h>


First released in Issue 4. Derived from the MSE working draft.

Issue 5

The DESCRIPTION is updated to indicate that errno is not changed if the function is successful.

Issue 6

Extensions beyond the ISO C standard are marked.

The following new requirements on POSIX implementations derive from alignment with the Single UNIX Specification:

The following changes are made for alignment with the ISO/IEC 9899:1999 standard:

Issue 7

SD5-XSH-ERN-56 is applied, removing the reference to unsigned long and unsigned long long from the DESCRIPTION.

POSIX.1-2008, Technical Corrigendum 1, XSH/TC1-2008/0725 [105] is applied.

POSIX.1-2008, Technical Corrigendum 2, XSH/TC2-2008/0393 [584] and XSH/TC2-2008/0394 [796] are applied.

End of informative text.


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